The idea of impact investing and how to allocate capital based on different approaches have diverged over time. Asset classes can be clustered according to the way investments would deliver financial return by the approach that they take. As illustrated by the below frameworks, impact investments are intended to align with an investor’s preference. In the impact investing spectrum, one end has the traditional investing mechanism and the other philanthropy and can compare the extent of impact and risk in an impact portfolio. The categories in organizing impact portfolio to determine level of impact, moving from less to more integral impact, are the following:
- Responsible: Also known as Socially Responsible Investing (SRI), this approach involves the negative screening of investments due to conflicts or inconsistencies with personal or organizational values, non-conformity to global environmental standards, adherence to certain codes of practice, or other such binary impact performance criteria. ‘Responsible’ captures investment activity that may proactively contain a social or environmental component in its strategy.
- Sustainable: Sustainable investments move beyond a defensive screening posture, actively looking for investments that are positioned to benefit from market conditions by integrating Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) factors into core investment decision-making processes. This can include corporate engagement, innovations, and new markets that are recognized as a path to growth, with positive social and environmental benefits, such as, for example, alternative energy.
- Thematic: Thematic or mission investments have a particular focus on one or more impact themes, such as clean water or deforestation, and work to channel investment allocations in those particular directions. These are highly targeted investment opportunities, in which the social or environmental benefits are fully blended into the value proposition of a commercially positioned investment.
- Impact-First: Investments that seek to optimize a desired social or environmental outcome, without regard for competitive return. They are open to trading off financial return for more impact where a more commercially oriented return is not yet available.
- Non-Impact Investments: Investments made for the sole purpose of financial return, without any explicit consideration given to the social impact of the investments.
- 100% Impact Investment: The intentional commitment by asset owners of 100% of their assets to positive social and/or environmental impact.
To navigate the following strategies, the report recommends adopting an incremental philosophy to explore opportunities in the program that builds upon the internal capacity, investment functions, and existing relationships. For instance, mission related investments are “financial investments made with the intention of furthering a foundation’s mission and recovering the principal invested or earning financial return.” Socially responsible investing focuses primarily on (negative) social screening and proxy activity in public equities, while mission-related investing is a proactive approach in use across asset classes.
Impact investing is no longer a niche market. As more investors are interested in exploring impact, they are seen as a simple mechanism with expected financial return and an approach to impact.
Impact investing can offer the following opportunities when pursuing impact investing:
- Banks, pension funds, financial advisors, and wealth managers can provide client investment opportunities to both individuals and institutions with an interest in general or specific social and/or environmental causes.
- Institutional and family foundations can leverage significant assets to advance their core social and/or environmental goals, while maintaining or growing their overall endowment.
- Government investors and development finance institutions can provide proof of financial viability for private-sector investors while targeting specific social and environmental goals
McKinsey & Company looked at financial returns for impact investments on 48 investor exits between 2010 and 2015 and found that they produced a median internal rate of return (IRR) of about 10 percent. The top one-third of deals yielded a median IRR of 34 percent, clearly indicating that it is possible to achieve profitable exits in social enterprises. The below figure shows some evident relationships between deal size and volatility of returns, as well as overall performance. The larger deals produced a much narrower range of returns, while smaller deals generally produced better results. The smallest deals had the worst returns and the greatest volatility.
Source: McKinsey & Co., 2018
 Jacen Greene, An Introduction to Impact Investing https://impactentrepreneurs.wordpress.com/2012/04/16/an-introduction-to-impact-investing/
 Jane Finkelman, Kate Huntington, Impact Investing: History & Opportunity, https://www.athenacapital.com/wp-content/uploads/Impact-Investing-History-and-Opportunity.pdf
 GIIN, 2018 GIIN Annual Impact Investor Survey, https://thegiin.org/assets/2018_GIIN_Annual_Impact_Investor_Survey_webfile.pdf
 GIIN, What you need to know about impact investing, https://thegiin.org/impact-investing/need-to-know/#core-characteristics-of-impact-investing
 J.P. Morgan, Impact Investments: An Emerging Asset Class, https://thegiin.org/assets/documents/Impact%20Investments%20an%20Emerging%20Asset%20Class2.pdf
 NPC, Investing for Impact: Practical Tools, Lessons, and Results, 2015. https://www.thinknpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/KLF_Investing-for-impact_FINAL.pdf
 Heron, Expanding Philanthropy, Mission–related Investing at the F.B. Heron Foundation, https://www.heron.org/sites/default/files/Expanding_Philanthropy_Mission_Related_Investing_at_the_FB_Heron_Foundation.pdf
 GIIN, Impact Investing Guide, https://thegiin.org/assets/documents/GIIN_impact_investing_guide.pdf
 McKinsey & Company, Private Equity and Principal Investors, https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/private-equity-and-principal-investors/our-insights/a-closer-look-at-impact-investing